• Well, the Earth has two principle motions that most people are familiar with: it's rotation once every 24 hours, and its orbit around the Sun every 365.25 days. So if the Earth wasn't orbiting the Sun (well, we wouldn't be a alive because it'd be too cold, but let's ignore that for the moment), it'd still be rotating on its axis every 24 hours. So we'd see the stars moving overhead and that would provide a time measurement, and a reason for having a concept of it. If the atmosphere was so thick we couldn't see stars, or moons or the Sun, and there was no light that reached the surface where we lived, there still would be reason to have a concept of time because physical movement still requires time. We'd probably be measuring things in terms of how long it takes to go from one place to another, or by measuring other events (water dripping from a container... how long does it take to empty, etc.) So, in short, yes.
  • Yes, we would simply have a different concept of time. For instance, days are counted according to the rotation of the Earth on its axis.
  • How about if there was never a sun, we never saw daylight and had no idea what time was, do you think somehow we'd still try and measure it, or just let it be?

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