• Baptist is not considered a Protestant religion because it did not branch of Catholism. Prebsyterians branched from the Catholic religion after be persecuted for difference of beliefs. The Prebsyterians, Lutherans, and Methodist all have pretty much the same beliefs but grew in numbers in different countries. Prebsyterians- Church of Scotland Lutherans-Church of Germany Methodist- Church of England converts that still to this day practice many of the pagan things such as infant baptism and sprinkling instead of immersion.
  • Protestant ideas actually started even before Martin Luther the most prominent example being Huss in the modern day Czech Republic. In turn Luther's division from the church is where most historians place the beginning of the Protestant movement. While Lutheran services remained liturgical and quite Catholic, Luther rejected of Papal authority and stressed being saved through faith alone (sola fide). In turn, Luther also stressed the authority of the bible as the sole authority on matters of Faith (sola scriptura) even though he removed a few books from the Bible during the Reformation. The Presbyterian Church can trace its roots to Luther's contemporary John Calvin. Calvin stressed faith alone but also pushed forward the idea of predestination. In essence, God has predetermined if we are heading to heaven or hell and it is only through god's grace that we can be saved. John Knox influenced by Calvin's ideas and began the Presbyterian Church in Scotland. Baptists are indeed Protestants and trace their roots back to the anabaptist movement of Europe. Baptists also stress the supreme authority of the Bible but also put forth the idea of believer's baptism. In essence, once someone had accepted Jesus and had been saved or born again they were on the course to heaven. Because infant's do not have the reasoning ability to accept Jesus they rejected the idea of infant baptism a position that caused them to be persecuted in Europe by both Catholics and other Protestants. The Methodist Church is an example of the phenomenon of Protestant churches breaking off from themselves. John Wesley strived to change the "high mass" worship style of the Church of England and sought to develop a new "method" of worship. His worship style spread heavily through revivals in both Europe and America and many of Wesley's methods are still used by the Methodist Church today.
  • Those are not "religions." Religion is variously defined. In James it refers to living a Christian life. Some say that "religion" is working for God to accept you (in various ways), and that to get saved you need to stop religion. To the extent that all those groups that you listed require their adherents to trust Christ as only & sufficient Savior, and define Christ so that the word "Christ" actually refers to Christ, those are all Christians. (I mean that Christ is the 2nd person of the Trinity, both God and man.) To the extent that those different groups simply have different preferences as to how to conduct a local church, these are just varieties of Christians. Actually few Christians agree with each other on everything. The only persons that lockstep agree on "everything," IMO, are cult members. There are many, many different baptist denominations. They mostly agree that water baptism is by immersion and that only believers should be baptized (ignorant children excluded). But actually the view on baptism is really not that important a doctrine to baptists; I don't know of any that insist that you can't be saved without holding and practicing baptist baptism. Presbyterians traditionally believed in a "presbytery" for church government. The presbytery was the elders, consisting of pastors and ruling elders in a geographical region. These owned the church property and legally assigned pastors to churches in that area. But there again, to traditional Presbyterians, this belief about a presbytery was not the most important of the doctrines they believed; just one that defined them as non-congrationalist, and non-bishop. Lutherans followed the general peculiarities of Luther. However, I think Luther would not have approved of persons calling themselves Lutherans. The Methodists were a revivalistic movement in the Church of England. These are not the real important distinctions in Christendom. By the end of World War I the really important distinctions came to be between fundamentalists vs. modernists; and this division in Christendom cut across all those denominations. Soon the fundamentalists in each denomination felt more sympathy for each other than with the modernists in each denomination (& vice versa). The fundamentalists believed the basic fundamentals of the faith (deity of Christ, inerrant Bible & the life -- they did not agree with each other on a host of other secondary issues, like "separation" and what was a "worldly practice." The modernists denied the very basics of Christianity: the Bible had lots of errors, Christ was not God, miracles are myths.
  • The differences are slight. Baptist believe in baptizing at age 8 or 9, Lutherans believe in baptizing infants. Some believe in allowing female or gay pastors. There are differences in the formality of the church service and what is performed. There are differences in the administering of the bread and wine. Some use unleven bread others have raised bread. Some wear formal robes and some wear street clothing. Some denominations believe in singing out loud and other not at all. Lutherans pronounce God's forgiveness over the congregation after a period of reflection and repentance. I don't think the other religions do that.
  • The Presbyterians, Lutherans, and the United Methodists are liberal, main-line Protestant denominations, that recognize both Baptistism and Holy Communion, as Sacraments-the Baptists do not. Unlike the Baptists, the other 3 denominations, are liturgical and whose worship styles are very similiar-pastors are more likely than not to wear vestments and stoles, and incor porate organ accompanment-Baptists do not and also don't recognize the Christian season like the Methodist and Lutherans do as well as the Presbyterians The Baptists have always been fundamentalists and believe in the literal interpretation of the Bible-the other 3 do not. I hope this helps!
  • They are all doctrinal differences based upon differing interpretations of text, and the amount of emphasis placed upon non-scriptural tradition. They differ on their views on predestination. They differ on their views of baptism (what it means, type required - Baptism of the Spirit, immersion, etc). This is a good site for comparing religions and religious denominations.

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