• In general, an ester is made by dissolving a carboxylic compound in an alcohol and adding catalytic acid (usually sulfuric acid). In this case, the compounds involved are wood rosin and glycerol (aka glycerin).
  • Glycerol esters of resin acids of wood rosins used as food additives in beverages and chewing gum are those prepared from wood rosin that is harvested from the stumps of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and purified to a beverage-grade ester gum. The resin acid composition of wood rosin can vary considerably; however, the main resin acids in ester gum are abietic acids, with smaller contents of dehydroabietic and neoabietic acids; pimaric acids, including isopimaric and sandaracopimaric acids; and palustric acid. The toxicology of glycerol esters of wood rosins harvested from the stumps of the pine tree is different from that of glycerol esters from tall-oil and gums, which are not used for the preparation of food additives. The latter are therefore not reviewed or evaluated in this monograph addendum. for more, read the whole report:

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