ANSWERS: 1
  • 1) "The enthalpy of combustion for hydrogen is −286 kJ/mol: 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(l) + 572 kJ (286 kJ/mol)" Source and further information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen 2) I found only information about the energy needed for the transformation from one form to the oher: "Hydrogen molecules exist in two forms, Para and Ortho, depending on the electron configurations  At hydrogen’s boiling point of 20 K(-423°F), the equilibrium concentration is almost all Para-hydrogen  But at room temperature or higher the equilibrium concentration is 25% Para-hydrogen and 75% Orthohydrogen  Uncatalyzed conversion from Ortho to Para-hydrogen proceeds very slowly  Ortho to Para-hydrogen conversion releases a significant amount of heat (527 kJ/kg [227 Btu/lb])" Source and further information: http://www.mae.ufl.edu/NasaHydrogenResearch/h2webcourse/L11-liquefaction2.pdf "What makes Hydrogen so special in MHD is the fact that it possesses two distinctive forms; Para-Hydrogen and Ortho-Hydrogen. This occurs when the electron is (spinning or twisting) in the opposite direction as the nucleus is called Para. When the electron is spinning in the same direction as the nucleus is called Ortho. Can you guess how we change from one state to another? You got it, a magnetic field. The research conducted by Ruskin found that the conversion of Hydrogen from Para to Ortho was done by magnetic means. Ortho-Hydrogen is much more explosive than Para-Hydrogen. In fact, for safety reasons the liquid hydrogen fuel used as a propellant for the space shuttle is stored in its less volatile state Para-Hydrogen." Source and further information: http://www.bfteft.com/features/magnetohydrodynamics.htm "The hydrogen molecule exists in two forms: ortho and para, named according to their types of nuclear spin. (Ortho-hydrogen molecules have a parallel spin; para-hydrogen molecules, an anti-parallel spin.) There is no difference in the chemical properties of these forms, but there is a difference in physical properties. Para-hydrogen is the form preferred for rocket fuels. Hydrogen consists of about three parts ortho and one part para as a gas at room temperature. The equilibrium concentration of para increases with decreasing temperature until, as a liquid, the para concentration is nearly 100 per cent. If hydrogen should be cooled and liquefied rapidly, the relative three-to-one concentration of ortho to para would not immediately change. Conversion to the para form takes place at a relatively slow rate and is accompanied by the release of heat. For each pound of rapidly cooled liquid hydrogen that changes to the para form, enough heat is liberated to vaporize 1.5 lb of liquid hydrogen. However, if a catalyst is used in the liquefaction cycle, para-hydrogen can be produced directly without loss from self-generated heat." Source and further information: http://www.hydrogenappliances.com/Hydrogendata.html "The orientations of the spins have a pronounced effect on the behavior of the molecule. In fact, ortho-hydrogen is unstable and more reactive than its para-hydrogen counterpart. The liquid hydrogen fuel that is used to power the space shuttle is stored in the para-hydrogen form, which is less volatile. A utility patent was awarded to Simon Ruskin, 3228 868, which relates the means by which hydrogen rocket fuel can be converted from para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen through the application of a magnetic field." Source and further information: http://209.85.129.132/search?q=cache:http://purenaturalhealth.org/fec_work.html Further information: - "Hydrogen AS A Future Energy Carrier By Andreas Züttel, Andreas Borgschulte, Louis Schlapbach": http://books.google.com/books?id=2praxIXjidYC&pg=PA171&lpg=PA171&dq="para+hydrogen"+"ortho"+combustion&source=web&ots=bkURBc_rr5&sig=_CG9Bpu0Tjcg1crIsseVftKAMWc&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result#PPA171,M1 - "Spin isomers of hydrogen": http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_isomers_of_hydrogen

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