• Biotic Factors - living organisms that impact the growth, composition, and structure of the forest (e.g., insects, herbivores, humans). The alpine tundra biome exists on rocky mountaintops and is very similar to the arctic tundra except for a conspicuous lack of trees. Because trees cannot grow at this high altitude, most of the alpine tundra plant life consists of shrubbery and small leafy plants such as alpine bluegrass which serve as dinner to a variety of grazing animals such as bighorn sheep and mountain goats. Other alpine tundra animals include elk, pika, marmots, and birds such as the white-tailed parmigan and the grouse, and a few insects like grasshoppers, bumblebees, and beetles.

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