ANSWERS: 6
  • Its called the Strong Nuclear Force. It is only felt by protons and neutrons. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strong_nuclear_force
  • I like how we guess at however thing works! :D
  • sticky tape or blu-tack! dunno.. a type of chemical bond I guess!
  • Crazy Glue, duh!
  • science geek
  • 1) "The nuclear force (or nucleon-nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is the force between two or more nucleons. It is responsible for binding of protons and neutrons into atomic nuclei. To a large extent, this force can be understood in terms of the exchange of virtual light mesons, such as the pions. Sometimes the nuclear force is called the residual strong force, in contrast to the strong interactions which are now understood to arise from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This phrasing arose during the 1970s when QCD was being established. Before that time, the strong nuclear force referred to the inter-nucleon potential. After the verification of the quark model, strong interaction has come to mean QCD. Since nucleons have no color charge, the nuclear force does not directly involve the force carriers of quantum chromodynamics, the gluons. However, just as electrically neutral atoms (each composed of cancelling charges) attract each other via the second-order effects of electrical polarization, via the van der Waals forces (London forces), so by analogy, "color-neutral" nucleons may attract each other by a type of polarization which allows some basically gluon-mediated effects to be carried from one color-neutral nucleon to another, via the virtual mesons which transmit the forces, and which themselves are held together by virtual gluons. It is this van der Waals-like nature which is responsible for the term "residual" in the term "residual strong force." The basic idea is that while the nucleons are "color-neutral," just as atoms are "charge-neutral," in both cases, polarization effects acting between near-by neutral particles allow a "residual" charge effect to cause net charge-mediated attraction between uncharged species, although it is necessarily of a much weaker and less direct nature than the basic forces which act internally within the particles." Source and further information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_force 2) "Protons and neutrons are not fundamental particles like electrons are. That is, protons and neutrons are composed of even more fundamental entities. For this case, protons and neutrons belong to a group of particles called hadrons, which consists of particles made up of quarks. Quarks are particles that can be thought of to be the most fundamental ones like electrons. The composition of the proton is a combination of 3 quarks -- 2 up and 1 down quarks. For the neutron, the combination is 1 up and 2 down quarks. ("up", "down" and other types of quarks are but fanciful names to distinguish between the 6 different "flavours" of quarks with no literal meaning of the word used. In fact, the term "flavour" -- which is something like "type" in quark terminology -- is also rather fanciful. You don't expect "up" to be a "flavour" in everyday language anyway!) Quarks interact via the colour (or strong) force, by the exchange of the colour force carriers gluons. In short, quarks are attracted to each other and held together (in certain allowed combinations) by the "colour force" or "strong force". How, then, do protons and neutrons hold each other together? This can be described as a "leakage" or "residue" of the colour force between the quarks of the proton and the quarks of the neutron that pulls the proton and the neutron together. This residual colour force therefore manifests itself as the strong nuclear force that binds "nucleons" -- a collective term for protons and neutrons in the nucleus -- together. This concept might be better understood if we understand that -- by analogy -- atoms, being electrically neutral, should not be attracted to other atoms to form molecules. However, due to the composition of the atom (positive nucleus and outer negative electron cloud), atoms do come together and form molecules. In an analogous way, we can understand the strong nuclear force by understanding the composition of the nucleons first. There are other ways to answer this question, and one of them is the concept of binding energy. One of the tendencies of nature is to achieve stability. And a way to go about doing it is by minimizing the energy of a system. When protons and neutrons "combine" to form a nucleus, we notice that the mass of the nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of the constituent nucleons. This is known as the "mass defect". How do we explain that? Mass and energy are equivalent, and their relationship is immortalized in that famous equation E = mc2. Essentially, it means that mass and energy are different forms of the same stuff (just like potential energy and kinetic energy are but different types of the same thing called energy). The mass defect is simply the amount of mass (or energy) that is released when protons and neutrons come together to form a nucleus. Generally, the greater the amount of mass defect per nucleon, the more stable the nucleus. Hence, the holding together of protons and neutrons in a nucleus can also be explained by the concept of binding energy and mass defect. All these explanations must explain that the force of attraction is larger than the repulsion between positively charged protons, over the range of the nucleus that is." Source and further information: http://www.physlink.com/education/AskExperts/ae565.cfm

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