ANSWERS: 1
  • One of the most used masonry material is concrete, and has been used to make roads and pavements ever since the days of ancient Rome. Pits and holes in concrete are particularly due to weather and other elements.

    Water

    Water, from rainfall or otherwise, seeps into minuscule cracks or lays on the surface. Generally, water will not cause much damage, but in large quantities or freezing temperatures, it is damaging.

    Freezing Temperatures

    Changes in temperature, even slight, in freezing cold weather can drastically effect the uppermost layer of concrete, especially if water or other elements are added.

    Ice

    Ev Munro in Cementimagination Vol. 21 No.1 states that upon "freezing, water expands about 10 percent." This added pressure naturally chips and breaks concrete.

    Salt

    Even though salt melts the frozen ice on the concrete, the drastic changes it creates in temperature and hydraulic pressure also damages it.

    Time

    Over a long period of time, after many months and years of winters and freezing weather, pits and small holes will continue to develop and erode more.

    Source:

    Encyclopedia.com: Concretion

    "CEMENTIMAGINATION" Vol. 21 No. 1; Why Does Salt Do Damage to Some Concrete?; Ev Munro; May 1989

    Resource:

    Concrete Corrosion Inhibitors Assosiation: Avoiding Corrosion Damage in Reinforced Concrete

    Re*Use Concrete Sealing

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